The House of Osman

دولت عليه عثمانیه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye - Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu - (The Ottoman Empire) sometimes referred to as the Turkish Empire, was a contiguous transcontinental empire founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299.
With the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmet II in 1453 the Ottoman state was transformed into an empire.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful states in the world – a multinational, multilingual empire, controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia/the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.
At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople (Istanbul) as its capital and control of vast lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for over six centuries.
It was dissolved in the aftermath of World War I; the collapse of the empire led to the emergence of the new political regime in Turkey itself, as well as the creation of the new Balkans and Middle East.

Decline and Fall

By the 1700s it was obvious that the Empire was in the initial phases of the process of decline.
This decline was evident in the sciences, technology, but most obviously in the military sphere.
The main cause of this decline was the excessive influence of conservative Muslim clergy.
In 1734 an artillery school was established to impart Western-style artillery methods, but the Islamic clergy successfully objected under the grounds of theodicy.
In 1754 the artillery school was reopened on a semi-secret basis.
In 1726, Ibrahim Muteferrika convinced the Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, the Grand Mufti, and the clergy on the efficiency of the printing press, and Muteferrika was later granted by Sultan Ahmed III permission to publish non-religious books (despite opposition from some calligraphers and religious leaders).
Muteferrika's press published its first book in 1729 and, by 1743, issued 17 works in 23 volumes, each having between 500 and 1,000 copies.
In 1768 Russian-backed Haidamaks, pursuing Polish confederates, entered Balta, an Ottoman-controlled town on the border of Bessarabia, and massacred its citizens and burned the town to the ground.
This action provoked the Ottoman Empire into the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1774 ended the war and provided freedom to worship for the Christian citizens of the Ottoman-controlled provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia.
By the late 18th century, a number of defeats in several wars with Russia led some people in the Ottoman Empire to conclude that the reforms of Peter the Great had given the Russians an edge, and the Ottomans would have to keep up with Western technology in order to avoid further defeats.
Selim III (1789–1807) made the first major attempts to modernize the army, but reforms were hampered by the religious leadership, and the Janissary corps.
Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, the Janissary created a revolt.
Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who eliminated the Janissary corps in 1826.
The Serbian revolution (1804–1815) marked the beginning of an era of national awakening in the Balkans during the Eastern Question.
Suzerainty of Serbia as a hereditary monarchy under its own dynasty was acknowledged de jure in 1830.
In 1821, the Greeks declared war on the Sultan.
A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese, which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth, became the first parts of the Ottoman empire to achieve independence (in 1829).
By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man" by Europeans.
The suzerain states – the Principality of Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia and Montenegro – moved towards de jure independence during the 1860s and 1870s.
During the Tanzimat period (1839–1876), the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalisation of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories.

تنظيمات (Tanzimât) literally meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements from within and aggressive powers from outside of the state. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The reforms attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire.

The Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Istanbul on 23 October 1840.
Samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention.
Following this successful test, installation works of the first telegraph line (Istanbul-Adrianople-Şumnu) began on 9 August 1847.
The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the Kanûn-u Esâsî.
The empire's First Constitutional era, was short-lived.
The parliament survived for only two years before the sultan suspended it.
The Christian population of the empire, owing to their higher educational levels, started to pull ahead of the Muslim majority, leading to much resentment on the part of the latter.
In 1861, there were 571 primary and 94 secondary schools for Ottoman Christians with 140,000 pupils in total, a figure that vastly exceeded the number of Muslim children in school at the same time, who were further hindered by the amount of time spent learning Arabic and Islamic theology.
In turn, the higher educational levels of the Christians allowed them to play a large role in the economy.
In 1911, of the 654 wholesale companies in Istanbul, 528 were owned by ethnic Greeks.
The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.
The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August 1854.
The war caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars, about 200,000 of whom moved to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration.
Toward the end of the Caucasian Wars, 90% of the Circassians were ethnically cleansed and exiled from their homelands in the Caucasus and fled to the Ottoman Empire, resulting in the settlement of 500,000 to 700,000 Circassians in Turkey.
The Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) ended with a decisive victory for Russia.
As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply; Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire, Romania achieved full independence. Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories.
In 1878, Austria-Hungary unilaterally occupied the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Novi Pazar.
Although the Ottoman government contested this move, its troops were defeated within three weeks.
In return for British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli's advocacy for restoring the Ottoman territories on the Balkan Peninsula during the Congress of Berlin, Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus in 1878, and later sent troops to Egypt in 1882, with the pretext of helping the Ottoman government to put down the Urabi Revolt; effectively gaining control in both territories.
From 1894–96, between 100,000 to 300,000 Armenians living throughout the empire were killed in what became known as the Hamidian massacres.
As the Ottoman Empire gradually shrank in size, many Balkan Muslims migrated to the empire's remaining territory in Balkans or to the heartland in Anatolia.

Defeat and Dissolution

The Second Constitutional Era began after the Young Turk Revolution (3 July 1908) with the sultan's announcement of the restoration of the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of the Ottoman Parliament.
It marked the beginning of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.
This era is dominated by the politics of the 'Committee of Union and Progress', and the movement that would become known as the 'Young Turks'.
Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, but it pulled its troops out of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, another contested region between the Austrians and Ottomans, to avoid a war.
During the Italo-Turkish War (1911–12), in which the Ottoman Empire lost Libya, the Balkan League declared war against the Ottoman Empire.
The Empire lost the Balkan Wars (1912–13).
It lost its Balkan territories except East Thrace and the historic Ottoman capital city of Adrianople during the war.
Some 400,000 Muslims, out of fear of Greek, Serbian or Bulgarian atrocities, left with the retreating Ottoman army.
During the period from 1821 to 1922 alone, the ethnic cleansing of Ottoman Muslims in the Balkans led to the death of several million individuals, and the expulsion of a similar number.
By 1914 the Ottoman Empire had been driven out of nearly all of Europe and North Africa. 
It still controlled 28 million people, of whom 15.5 million were in modern-day Turkey, 4.5 million in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan, and 2.5 million in Iraq.
Another 5.5 million people were under nominal Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers (?), in which it took part in the Middle Eastern theatre.
There were several important Ottoman victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut, but there were setbacks as well, such as the disastrous Caucasus Campaign against the Russians.
The United States never declared war against the Ottoman Empire.
In 1915, as the Russian Caucasus Army continued to advance in eastern Anatolia, aided by some Ottoman Armenians, the Ottoman government started the deportation and massacre of its ethnic Armenian population.
Ethnic cleansing was also enforced against the Greek and Assyrian minorities.
The 'Arab Revolt', engineered by the British, which began in 1916 turned the tide against the Ottomans at the Middle Eastern front, where they initially seemed to have the upper hand during the first two years of the war.
The Armistice of Mudros, signed on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre, and was followed with occupation of Constantinople and subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire was solidified. 
The last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Turkish-Muslim refugees from the lost territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.
The occupation of Constantinople and İzmir led to the establishment of a Turkish national movement, which won the Turkish War of Independence (1919–22) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha (known later as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk).
The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI (reigned 1918–22), left the country on 17 November 1922.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey declared the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. The Caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924.

The Ottoman Dynasty 

The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman), ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertug(rul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until Orhan Bey declared himself sultan.
Before that the tribe/dynasty might have been known as Sög(üt but was renamed Osmanli (Ottoman in English) in honour of Osman.
The sultan was the sole and absolute regent, head of state and head of government of the empire, at least officially, though often much power shifted de facto to other officials, especially the Grand Vizier.

The Ottoman Sultan Holding Court at The Port of Felicity


    Hakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn;
    Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans,
    Khan of Khans,
    Commander (Caliph) of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe
    Custodian of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem
    Caesar of the Roman Empire
    Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianople and Bursa, and of the Cities of Damascus and Cairo, of all Azerbaijan, of the Magris, of Barka, of Kairouan, of Aleppo, of Arabic Iraq and of Acem, of Basra, of Al-Hasa, of Dilen, of Ar Raqqah, of Mosul, of Parthia, of Diyarbak?r, of Cilicia, of the Vilayets of Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman, Van, of Barbary, of Abyssinia, of Tunisia, of Tripoli, of Damascus, of Cyprus, of Rhodes, of Candia, of the Vilayet of the Morea, of the Marmara Sea, the Black Sea and also its coasts, of Anatolia, of Rumelia, Baghdad, Greece, Turkistan, Tartary, Circassia, of the two regions of Kabarda, of Georgia, of the plain of Kypchak, of the whole country of the Tartars, of Kefe and of all the neighboring countries, of Bosnia and its dependencies, of the City and Fort of Belgrade, of the Vilayet of Serbia, with all the castles, forts and cities, of all Albania, of all Eflak and Bogdania, as well as all the dependencies and borders, and many other countries and cities. 

Taklide-Seif - (The Sword of Osman)

Taklide-Seif - (The Sword of Osman), was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
The sword was named after Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Dynasty.
The practice started when Osman I was girt with the sword of Islam by his mentor and father-in-law Sheik Edebali.
The girding of the sword of Osman was a vital ceremony which took place within two weeks of a sultan's accession to the throne. It was held at the tomb complex at Eyüp, on the Golden Horn waterway in the capital Constantinople.
Even though the journey from Topkapi Palace (where the sultan resided) to the Golden Horn was short, the sultan would board a boat amid much pomp to go there.
The Eyüp tomb complex was built by Mehmed II in honour of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad who had died during the first Muslim siege of Constantinople in the 7th century.
The sword girding thus occurred on what was regarded as sacred grounds, and linked the newly enthroned sultan both to his 13th-century ancestors and to the very person of the Prophet.
The fact that the emblem by which a sultan was enthroned consisted of a sword was highly symbolic: it showed that the office with which he was invested was first and foremost that of a warrior.
The Sword of Osman was girded on to the new sultan by the Sharif of Konya, a Mevlevi dervish, who was summoned to Constantinople for that purpose.
Such a privilege was reserved to the men of this Sufi order from the time Osman I had established his residence in Konya in 1299, before the capital was moved to Bursa and later to Constantinople.
Until the late 19th century, non-Muslims were banned from entering the Eyüp Mosque and witnessing the girding ceremony.
The first to depart from this tradition was Mehmed V, whose girding ceremony was open to people of different faiths.
Held on 10 May 1909, it was attended by representatives of all the religious communities present in the empire, notably the Greek Patriarch, the chief rabbi and a representative of the Armenian church. The fact that non-Muslims were allowed to see the ceremony enabled The New York Times to write an extremely detailed account of it.
Mehmed V's brother and successor, Mehmed VI, went even further by allowing his girding ceremony to be filmed. Since he was the last reigning Ottoman sultan, this is the only such ceremony that was ever put on film.


T H E   O T T O M A N   C A L I P H A T E

Ottoman rulers were known primarily by the title of Sultan.
The first time the title of caliph was used as a political instead of symbolic religious title by the Ottomans was the peace treaty with Russia in 1774. The outcome of this war was disastrous for the Ottomans. Large territories, including those with large Muslim populations such as Crimea, were lost to the Christian Russian Empire.
However, the Ottomans under Abdulhamid I claimed a diplomatic victory, the recognition of themselves as protectors of Muslims in Russia as part of the peace treaty.
This was the first time the Ottoman caliph was acknowledged as having political significance outside of Ottoman borders by a European power. As a consequence of this diplomatic victory, as the Ottoman borders were shrinking, the powers of the Ottoman caliph increased.
Around 1880 Sultan Abdulhamid II reasserted the title as a way of countering creeping European colonialism in Muslim lands.
His claim was most fervently accepted by the Muslims of British India.
By the eve of the First World War, the Ottoman state, despite its weakness vis-à-vis Europe, represented the largest and most powerful independent Islamic political entity.
But the sultan also enjoyed some authority beyond the borders of his shrinking empire as caliph of Muslims in Egypt, India and Central Asia.

The Ottoman Empire



Abdülhamid II  1867

Abdülhamid II

Abdulhamid II Tugra - The House of Osman 

Sultan Mehmed V 1917 

Sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin

Abdülmecid II


O T T O M A N   P A L A C E S 

 طوپقپو سرايى

 طوپقپو سرايى

Topkapi Sarayi - Bab i Saadet (the Sublime Porte) - Istanbul - Turkey

Topkapi Sarayi, usually spelled "Topkapi" in English) is a palace in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and primary residence in the city of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years (1465-1856) of their 624-year reign.
The palace was a setting for state occasions and royal entertainments and is a major tourist attraction today, containing the most holy relics of the Muslim world such as the Prophet Muhammed's cloak and sword.

 طوپقپو سرايى

Topkapi Sarayi - Bab i Saadet - Istanbul - Turkey

 طوپقپو سرايى

Topkapi Sarayi - Diwan - Istanbul Turkey

 طوپقپو سرايى 

Imperial Harem - Entrance -Topkapi Sarayi - Istanbul Turkey

 طوپقپو سرايى 

Mecidiye Kosku -Topkapi Sarayi - Istanbul Turkey

Dolmabahçe Sarayı

Dolmabahce Sarayi - Istanbul Turkey

Dolmabahçe Sarayi, in Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of theBosporus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1922, apart from a 22-year interval (1887-1909) in which Yildiz Palace was used.

Reception Hall - Dolmabahce Sarayi - Istanbul Turkey

Süfera Salon - Dolmabahce Sarayi - Istanbul Turkey


O T T O M  A N   O R D E R S
&   D E C O R A T I O N S

Mecidi Order - Star - House of Osman

Mecidi Order - Star and Ribbon - House of Osman

Osmani Order - 2nd Class - House of Osman

Osmani Order - Star - House of Osman

Ottoman Mecidiye Order - Star and Badge - House of Osman

Ottoman Order of Glory - House of Osman


Osmanli Devleti Nisani Yeni - The House of Osman

Ottoman Imperial Standard - The House of Osman

T H E   H O U S E   O F   O S M A N
T O D A Y ?
Prince Konstantin V Mustafaev of The House of Osman
is this the successor to the Sword of Osman ?

Turga of Prince Konstantin V Mustafaev of The House of Osman